Discusses Ibn Tufayl’s Hayy Ibn Yaqzan as a philosophical story of solitude, mysticism, and understanding. Isolated from human civilization, the infant Hayy ibn Yaqzan is raised by a gazelle on a deserted island Through observation, experimentation, and speculation. Ibn-Tufayl. It was during this time, working for the Almohads that Ibn-Tufayl wrote the first ever philosophical novel, “Hayy Ibn Yaqzan“ or “Living.

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Retrieved 2 January As is the case with many medieval Arabic texts, the author addresses his work to a petitioner who has asked for clarification on a particular point, in this case the philosophy of the renowned Eastern philosopher Ibn Sina. He alone could use tools to clothe and protect himself. Hayy noted that when he shut his eyes or something was put in front of them, he ceased to be able to see until the obstruction was removed.

Prejudice, authority, necessity, example, all the social conditions into which we are plunged, yyaqzan stifle nature in him and put nothing in her place. Sure enough, it was protected, as it arrived yazan the island safely. There is no interest on the part of these hqyy to explore deeper issues of social isolation and human development.

According to some, the spiritual seeker could attain a state of intimacy with the Divine wherein hajy boundary between seeker and object i. He aids all plant and animal life, thereby imitating heavenly beings because they offer nourishment and protection. There we meet two religiously devout men.

Keith Nemeth, The Path Towards Mysticism: A Critical Examination of Hayy Ibn Yaqzan – PhilPapers

But to Defoe’s character the island is an odious prison and a providential test of worthiness. Crusoe has already brought his cultural and yaqzwn values with him, and they are merely suspended on the island, while Crusoe awaited rescue and return to society.

A sentiment echoed by the later Thomas Hayu. This vigorous school of thought had mastered the Greeks but also criticized logic and mathematics, affirming the human soul’s innate capacity to discover not only natural law but to reach the most abstruse mystical doctrine.

As Absal teaches Hayy about the religious Law of his island, Hayy is ywqzan by references to the corporeal existence of God, laws dealing with property and money, and the absence of general ethical teachings such as the curbing of wealth and of gluttony.


Hayy and Absal return to the deserted island, again achieve states of spiritual ecstasy, and so serve God until death overtakes them.

The tale was first published in the West in by Edward Pococke with an introduction by his father, a renowned professor of Arabic and Hebrew at Oxford University. He further taught himself to hunt and ride horses and hyay overcome greater problems and challenges of beasts that were faster than him or stronger than him.

Hayy ibn Yaqzan |

This he discovered in a crude way by making wide circular motions like celestial beings with his body until he had lost the senses and imagination — a clear early reference to the secretive whirling practice of Sufi dervishes.

Yaqzaan grows strong among the deer, living and grazing amongst them. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. World Literature and Its Times: Edgar Rice Burroughs presents a feral Caucasian boy in the African jungle who would be ubn Tarzan.

Ibn Tufayl’s Hayy Ibn Yaqzan

Octagon, ; Two Andalusian Philosopherstranslated with a introduction and notes by Jim Colville. Any attempt to convey the sublime mystical experience only leads to misunderstanding. Defoe’s tale is often presented as a lesson in acquiring survival skills, of ingenuity and physical adaptability, but there is no intellectual component to Crusoe’s progress.

And he began to become curious as to how animal parts were arranged in order to do this, and so he began his inquiry with dissection of many kinds to see how they were assembled.

However, the philosophical tale does not end here. They cannot understand truth without symbols to explain them. Why debate the merits of one scripture or practice versus another when each is sufficient for maintaining the good in each culture, for the majority of its people. He saw that most people are no better than unreasoning animals, and realized that all wisdom and guidance, all that could possibly help them was contained already in the words of the prophets and the religious traditions.

Eventually he obtained the union with the Necessary Existent he was seeking, and could do it only for a time, but grew stronger and stronger the more he practiced. He did this to rid himself of visual stimuli, of any vision of particulars so that he could escape his world as much as he could, in imitation of those beings that perpetually observe the Necessary Existent.


F rom its earliest centuries, Islamic philosophy engaged ancient Greek thought in the form of Plato and Aristotle. There is the direct influence here not only of Arabic thinkers already cited but of the Sufi tradition that saw reason both in its limits and its compelling logic together with nature leading to the culmination of individual purpose: But we see that in the time it takes for Jupiter to do two rotations, Saturn only completes one.

By way of experiments carried out through reason only, Hayy concluded agreeing with Aristotle that the physical universe is finite. It takes two times the energy to move an object twice the size. Ibn-Tufayl was a 12th century philosopher living in Andalusia, or Medieval Spain.

Hayy ibn Yaqzan would enjoy an even warmer reception in late-seventeenth-century Europe. Federico Stella – – Doctor Virtualis The cave in our [Western] tradition, which owes more to Athens on this point than to the East, is a symbol of darkness and dogmatic slumber, not of personal enlightenment but of ignorance and unconcern. Hayy believes that he is ihn species apart from the other animals, more akin to the celestial bodies. In any case, the universal teaching of Hayy ibn Yaqzan attracted non-Muslims.

Hayy in this story, is a weed. He reasoned that his faculties could be obstructed and that if obstructed they could be restored by removing the obstruction.

The final part of the quotation is from yaqzwn Quran But ultimately Hayy learns to cut off the senses and imagination in the stillness and silence of his dwelling place: Ibn Tufayl insisted upon the equivalence of philosophy and religion. Modern Language Association http: He then began to contemplate the heavens, and the bodies that were there.

In the second version, the sister of a tyrant king married a kinsman in secret, far from the eyes of her brother, who insisted on choosing her spouse himself.